The USA in competition with Germany, Italy, Austria, Sweden and France.Their musical theme was: “American Rhapsody” – A cultural journey round the United States of America through its diverse musical heritage. It was spectacular and we hope they win.
The 4th July celebration in Villefranche-sur-Mer was a lot of fun and very hot. We enjoyed watching a parade, pin-up show, line dancing, music and a wonderful dinner at the famous La Mère Germaine.
92 happy guests celebrated dressed in red, white and blue. Karen Doyle won the prize for best outfit.
Our June event took us to the International Perfume Museum´s Gardens (MIP) in Mouans-Sartoux, a delicious lunch at “La Cantina” and an interesting guided tour of Espace d l´Art Concret (EAC). Thank you to the Event Manager Laurent Paty and his wife Helene for organizing such an interesting day.
The annual luncheon during the Film Festival was held at La Plage Barrière le Gray d’Albion Restaurant on the Croisette welcoming 96 guests. New this year was a music/film quiz organized and performed by John Jones. Table 2, “Portrait of a Lady on Fire” won the quiz. A special thank you to Judy and Jonathan Nash who organized this fabulous event.
We had a guided tour of Château de La Napoule and lunch at La Boucanier lounge restaurant in Mandelieu, situated in an exceptional setting at the foot of the Château de la Napoule. La Napoule Art Foundation (1951), was incorporated by an expatriate American, Marie Clews, as a memorial to her late husband. Together the couple spent 17 years restoring the Château de La Napoule, a medieval castle, which now houses the Clews Collection and hosts international programs in the arts.
Our March event in Marseille, included a visit to the US Consulate, overnight stay and dinner at the Radisson Blu hotel, a privatized panoramic sightseeing tour to the key features of Marseille. We did a guided walking tour from the Vieille Charité through Le Panier, the oldest district in France and ended the day with the famous Bouillabaisse.
We visited Prince Rainier III’s car collection on the Terrasses of Fontvieille – we saw almost 100 cars of all ages and the Lexus from the 2011 Royal Wedding. Also on display were racing cars, which have competed in the Rallye de Monte-Carlo and the Monaco F1 Grand Prix. Next was a visit to l’Orangerie, founded in 2015. The owner, Philip Culazzo showed us how the organic product is made from Monaco grown oranges. We enjoyed a 3 course lunch in a charming local restaurant, l’Aurore sur le Vieux Rocher.
London & Capital hosted another free financial seminar, this year at the JW Marriott in Cannes. The topic this time was: As we enter 2019 the question is: Are we in a crash or a correction? 10 Years after the last downturn are we heading for a recession? Is the worst behind us?
The Annual General Meeting of The American Club of the Riviera took place on January 19, 2019 at Hotel Le Saint-Paul in Nice. The 2019 Board of Officers and Governors were elected, updated Statutes and By-Laws approved and ratified. 2019 Membership fees ratified and remains the same as in 2018. 51 members and guests attended the luncheon which followed.
We enjoyed a guided tasting tour in Nice Old Town followed by Leonard Bernstein’s “Wonderful Town” musical at the Nice Opera House. We discovered Nicoise cuisine, the history, culture and heritage, and sampled the “treize desserts de Noël”, mulled wine, candied fruit and more. Wonderful Town is Bernstein’s most famous musical with West Side Story. The Choir of Nice Opera performed the story of the two sisters who aspire to be writers and actresses with music performed by Orchestre Philharmonique de Nice.
Members and friends of the American Club gather around an elegant lunch table in Monte Carlo, celebrating the important Thanksgiving Day. Several VIP guests were also invited to participate in our tradition. We sang the US National Anthem and the National Anthem of Monaco, read the President’s Proclamation and announced an Honorary Member. We enjoyed a traditional Thanksgiving meal served by Chef Witz and his team at Hotel Hermitage.
The October event took place in San Remo including a guided tour of Alfred Nobel’s home Villa Nobel. When he died, he had 93 factories in 20 different countries producing 66.500 tons of dynamite.
We then enjoyed a hearty Italian lunch at Villa Sylva next door. Thank you to one of our Governors Laure Mazzara for organizing this interesting event.
The Grand-Hôtel du Cap-Ferrat was our address for the annual Gala Dinner and Dancing. We gathered in the Volupte Garden for aperitif, followed by a gourmet dinner at the hotel’s seaside Club Dauphin. 90 guests had a wonderful evening in the utmost luxury and sophistication. We also enjoyed a quiz organized by DJ Mark Dezzani and dancing to familiar music.
We were at one of the finest Cannes Croisette beach restaurants L´Ondine, watching the international fireworks competition. It was a marvelous and awe-inspiring evening as Cannes arranged the Philippines Dragon Fireworks and synchronized music. 102 members and guests had a memorable sparkling evening.
The 4th July BBQ welcomed 73 guests to Le Lagon in Mandelieu for a festive and colorful celebration. Daniel Lacy, the Event Manager, ensured that we were warmly welcomed, we sang American songs, played Bingo, enjoyed lots of food and a special Birthday Cake and more. DJ Mark Dezzani played favorite music and Consul General Simon R. Hankinson gave a tribute to 4th July and special thanks to France. Prizes were won for best red, white, and blue outfit, quiz and Bingo game.
We had a fabulous in Antibes with a guided tour of the Old Town and the Picasso museum. Monaco’s ruling family constructed The Chateau Grimaldi in the 12th century. In 1946 the Chateau was the home for six months to the artist Pablo Picasso and is now The Picasso Museum. Picasso, and his widow Jacqueline, donated works to the museum, many of which were made down the road in Vallauris at the Madoura Pottery. 64 happy guests enjoyed a Lebanese meze. Thank you to Judy and Jonathan Nash who organised this fabulous day in Antibes.
A small group attended the Memorial Day Ceremony with a large number of flag bearers, French & US Armed Forces, Navy, and several Officials. It was an emotional experience and a reminder of the brave people who fought for future generations to live in peace. The day continued with lunch in Les Arcs at Le Logis du Guetteur, followed by a guided tour of Chateau D’Esclans; home of “Whispering Angel”. An impressive story and well worth a visit.
Members, guests and specially invited members from Club Danois, British Association de Menton and Canadian Club in Monaco had an enjoyable luncheon.Vegaluna beach restaurant delivered and so did all invited speakers. Thanks to Jonathan Lippman, Mario Haddad, Al Lieberman and Dr. Brian Mehling. As per tradition, Burton Gintell prepared a film quiz which was enjoyed by all. 132 guests attended making it a record Film Festival luncheon.
Ventimiglia Alta, the beauty of the hidden bays deserves its name. We learnt a lot from Sandro, our guide and were pleasantly surprised of the City’s history. After a 2 hour guided tour, we enjoyed a hearty lunch at Stella Marina, a lovely place by the sea. Both worth coming back to. 44 happy members and guests had a wonderful day which was an event recommended by one of our members. Thank you to Peggy Simon.
Another fully booked Seminar was held, this time at the Novotel in Monaco, where the topic was “The year of Trump. What impact this has had on US citizens living in Monaco and France and how to create a plan taking into account your investments and taxes”. This was the 3rd free seminar offered by London & Capital to members of our Club. A big thank you to speakers; Managing Director Daniel Freedman and Charles (Chuck) Lubar.
This historical day was covered in snow and zest of oranges and lemons of La Fête du Citron. The joint event with The British Association of Menton was truly enjoyable and memorable. A guitarist welcomed us with beautiful music. We made new friendships while enjoying a nice lunch which ended with a tasting of Philip Culazzo’s liqueur made of oranges from Monaco, L’Orangerie. Despite the snow, we were over 80 guests.
We enjoyed the “Mimosa Fete” and tasted and purchased some of the local specialities. The atmosphere was wonderful and well attended. A full restaurant “Le Moulin du Sault” awaited us in Auribeau. The lunch was well presented, tasty and generous. We welcomed 58 guests, made new friends and enjoyed many interesting and fun conversations.
The Annual General Meeting took place in the hills behind Cannes, in Mougins, once home to Picasso at Le Manoir de L’Etang. A manor house, built in the 19th century. A new slate was unanimously elected. The new President, Mrs. Beathe-Jeanette Lunde and Treasurer Richard Leblond gave the President´s and Financial report including upcoming events. A delicious 3 course lunch followed which everyone enjoyed.
Our last event of the year – for members only – was a great success. We filled the ‘library’ room at Le Grand Balcon and our member Dr. Cindy Egolf – the orchestra conductor – gave us a lovely talk about “listening” during our lunch. Everyone enjoyed the Gershwin concert and came away with a better understanding of this wonderful composer of the 1920s and 1930s.
A great time at the typical Thanksgiving lunch in Nice at the hotel Negresco. A huge crowd had signed up and they all enjoyed the tours of this famous hotel; the super lunch; the speeches; and particularly the comments by the new members. Everyone had a wonderful time.
The American Club of Lisbon, on the occasion of its 70th anniversary, made our 15th Annual Conference of
a tremendous success and appreciated by all who were there. In addition to Lisbon, our sight-seeing and restaurants included the towns of Cascais, Sintra and Belem. Our sincere thanks to their President, Anne Taylor, and Board Member, Joao Pestana Dias, for making our visit such a wonderful long weekend.
We all had a wonderful day in the Var – 3 locations and all superb – enjoyed in the lovely sunny hot day of Saturday 14th October. First our guided visit to the sad occurrences of the Rhone American Cemetery and Memorial. Then our superb lunch at the Restaurant Saint Endreol amid beautiful country scenery and finally a visit to the vineyard Font du Broc for wine tasting and a visit to the lovely surroundings.
A crowd of American couples and singles also living in France or Monaco were happy to meet the 4 specialists from London & Capital and learn what they should or should not invest in. American and French tax laws are conflicting and all those there had an opportunity to ask their own questions. A super buffet of snacks, wines and drinks followed.
Over 90 members and friends enjoyed the beautiful grounds of the Gand Hotel du Cap Ferrat for our aperos, and then down to their Club Dauphin for dinner and dancing. Everyone enjoyed the super meal and the great DJ. A great evening for all.
We had a very big turnout for our annual dinner and firework concert – 84 people – and everyone enjoyed the evening dinner and firework concert. We learned more about this day, the anniversary of Cannes’s liberation in 1944, from our speaker, George Kundahl, author of “The Riviera at War”.
A beautiful setting with lovely views over the Nice bay. Our members and guests had a lovely American Independence celebration with dinner at the beach restaurant Castel Place in Nice and a wonderful cabaret of Broadway classics provided by Amy Christianna Blake and her quartet of backing musicians.
A beautiful day welcomed us to the village of Gorbio. An interesting tour of the old village and a superb lunch at the lovely restaurant. We will all go back.
This event at the Nice Negresco hotel was totally full and we had to unfortunately refuse many people. However we will hold another financial seminar for Americans in France & Monaco, as the information provided by London & Capital was very interesting to all our attendees.
There was a huge turnout for this special event. The speakers were all highly appreciated and good fun had by all.
Jonathan Lippman spoke about Italian Actresses to reflect the Film Festival poster this year of Claudia Cardinali in 1956. What an incredible knowledge he has.
With thanks to our Dolceacqua member, Cindy Egolf, our April event was to the lovely 13th century village just above the town of Ventimiglia. We arranged for everyone to see the background (in English) of the whole valley at the 3D ‘Visionarium’ in the old town next to the beautiful church. This was the weekend of the flower festival (CARRUGI IN FIORE) in Dolceacqua.
We had lunch at a superb agriturismo. This farmhouse restaurant (Locanda degli Ulivi) was at the very top of the hill with wonderful views across the valley and they served many courses in their garden on a beautiful day.
The Association Ars Antonina, in partnership with the Cultural Affairs Directorate of the Monaco Government, presented a recital of the brilliant young Russian pianist, Anna Tsybuleva, at the Théâtre des Variétés in Monaco. All those attending gave her a standing ovation.
Visit to a very interesting village and a lovely lunch. Everyone enjoyed the outing and all the tables were great fun. Special little speeches that made everyone laugh. The American Club of the Riviera seems to be going from strength to strength and again this outing was sold out before the cut-off date.
Everyone who came thoroughly enjoyed the amazing sea view on 3 sides of this lovely restaurant. The AGM took just 30 mins and a new slate was unanimously selected. Your President, Mr. Burton Gintell, took a few minutes to talk about the upcoming events for 2017 and introduced the members of the new slate and also those who had memories of the American fleet who left Villefranche on 20th January 1967.
Quickly sold out, all attending thoroughly enjoyed the unusual event. The piano player, Dimitri Naiditch from the Ukraine, conducted the orchestra in Mozart and also played jazz.
Everyone attending thoroughly enjoyed the illuminating tutored beer tasting by Daniel Deganutti, one of our Governors. Thereafter a very enjoyable French 3-course lunch produced by an accomplished chef at the nearby Pastry Plaisirs.
Americans elected a new president on 8th November and MonacoUSA had a wonderful party of all nationalties to watch live voting results from the 50 states on a giant TV screen as well as take selfies with Hillary and Donald.
As in past years, members and friends of the American Club of the Riviera shared an elegant and traditional turkey lunch table at the splendid Salon Bellevue at the Café de Paris in Monte Carlo to celebrate the cherished family holiday of Thanksgiving. Before lunch we had a great mingling of everyone there over the champagne reception.
There was a turnout of 160 persons including honored guests from the US Army in Paris. All enjoyed the day and we had very positive feedback.
Presidents and Members came from many American Clubs all over Europe for this conference and wonderful social events at Stars ‘n Bars, Monaco Yacht Club, Villa Ephrussi de Rothschild and the Oceanographic Museum.In this chaotic world of 2016, we all gathered and shared ideas, experiences and hopes, in a convivial spirit, irrespective of our diverse earlier histories and current residences. Old friendships were affirmed and new ones created.
Everyone loved the reception down by the sea – and the dinner-dance to follow – at the 5* Belle Rives Hotel Plage. The unexpected high wind soon abated and all had great fun.
“I’m with you once more under the stars, and down by the shore an orchestra’s playing, and even the palms seem to be swaying” (Cole Porter: “Begin the Beguine” – 1935)
On Thursday, 18 August, the new beer shop in Nice of one of our Governors, Daniel Deianetti, held a “Meet the Brewer” evening with Andy Colgan of Colgan’s Brewery. Re told stories, answered questions and offered tastings of his beers. Andy is a native Australian, so (mostly) fluent in English! Not an American Club of the Riviera event
American Club of the Riviera members were invited to participate in the 1st edition of the Monaco U.S. Celebrity Golf Cup, initiated by the Monaco U.S. Business Forum co-founded by Susan Feaster, who is an American Club of the Riviera Governor. This was a private invitation-only event where American Celebrities challenged European Celebrities to win the Monaco U.S. Celebrity Cup and to promote the upcoming Ryder Cup France 2018. Play was on Sunday morning 19 June at the Royal Mougins Golf Club.
The highlight of this event was the presentation of the U.S. Monaco Celebrity Cup trophy presented by H.S.H. Prince Albert II to the winning U.S. or European Team. This presentation took place the evening of the golf tournament at a Black Tie Gala held at the Yacht Club of Monaco.
Everyone very much enjoyed their guided visit to the Galimard perfume factory, making their own cologne there, and the lunch in the marvellous high village of Cabris.
This was again one of our most popular events with 85 attendees! It was a clear blue sky and beautiful hot day and everyone very much enjoyed the beach lunch. The speakers were amusing and interesting and the famous film quiz created an incredible buzz. The winning table was awarded a 2016 Film Festival bag with all the interesting contents – and they chose one of the lovely ladies at their table to be the recipient.
The Prince and Princess of Seborga extended a special invitation to the American Club of the Riviera for the National Day Celebration of the Principality of Seborga on August 20th to be received as special VIP guests. We were quickly sold out. 70 of our members and guests very much enjoyed the full evening.
A very interesting debate with a good panel of 4 members including the American Club of the Riviera President, Mr Burton Gintell.
Anna Fill of The Riviera Woman was a great moderator.
This event was fantastic and we quickly sold out. We were fortunate to also have with us the orchestra conductor of the afternoon concert at the Opera House next door – Mr. George Hanson – and also the principal cellist of the orchestra – Zella Terry – and both spoke in a very interesting way. Several people told us it was the best event they had ever been to. Dr. Cindy Egolf taught us many things and her directing all the tables representing different instruments was technically brilliant and most enjoyable. A fun day for all present.
Everyone loved the guided visit to the magnificent Oceanographic Museum. The guides were super and gave everyone a fascinating knowledge of the nature and habits of the fish, mammals and coral they have their…….and some of us actually stroked a shark.
All our members and friends loved the day. Intrigued by the tour of the Mill which makes the olive oil from local olives; enjoying the tasting of various olives and oils; savouring the fascinating original Mill shop and its contents; loved the Mas Geranium and their delectable lunch on a glorious sunny day – which permitted us to take our apero and coffee outdoors. Most will certainly visit again.
A large number of members and friends enjoyed our reception, AGM and lunch at the Westminster Hotel on the Promenade des Anglais in Nice. A selection of photos from previous events was displayed on a large screen to the delight of all those present.
The beautiful Château les Crostes invited the Danish Club for sabling and a great lunch. We had an “American Club table” and everyone had the opportunity to taste the Château’s wines. A lovely day in the beautiful Var countryside.
A wonderful lunch celebration in the Grand Salon of the Hotel Hermitage in Monaco.
151 guests shared our time together and a good time had by all. We were honoured to have amongst our members 2 veterans of the American military who read the President’s proclamation between them. Our guest, Commander Thomas R. Winkler of the US navy, gave a wonderful speech.
Our September event was a wonderful 20s evening thoroughly enjoyed by everyone there. Great food, amazing location, beautiful coloured sky, professional DJ, entertaining and good music, fun dancing, super tributes to Burton Gintell, etc. We will have to arrange another evening event as so many wanted a repeat.
October 2015 – Because of the terrible floods on the French Riviera, the Verrerie de Biot was washed out in the mud slides on the night of 3 October, so we took members and guests to the wonderful Leger museum nearby and then to the planned Les Terraillers restaurant where we enjoyed an incredible lunch. After lunch the owner of the Verrierie showed us the terrible damage to the whole glass-blowing area, roof, furnaces, etc. and also welcomed us to the International Glass gallery which had miraculously remained intact. The small temporary shop of the famous Biot bubble-glass was open and some of our members and guests bought pieces.
We all had a wonderful weekend in Geneva and it was fun meeting again the Presidents and members from other American Clubs. There will be another AAC conference next year in a different country.
A great evening of dinner and firework concert enjoyed by all. Held on a central Croisette beach right underneath the firework display and opposite the firework barges in the Cannes bay. Argentina displayed wonderful fireworks choreographed to music. Everyone thought the food was delicious. We also wish to tell you that Burton was recently interviewed for the radio – CLICK HERE to hear it!
The 14th in France was National Day (Bastille Day) and all acts were free to the public courtesy of the Ville. What was unique this year is that one of our American Club members, Vaughn Duck, had penned lyrics to eight songs that were performed by Sonny Axell and his band in a very jazz style – at 6.30 PM in the park across the street from the Juan Les Pins Petite Pinède and again at 11.30 PM. All who were there enjoyed it tremendously and had dinner in-between the 2 concerts.
A very enjoyable and casual BBQ with wonderful live American songs – and fireworks in the bay of Villefranche below. Everyone had a super time with great food and wines throughout the evening.
One of our most popular annual events and we had 94 attendees! This year we arranged our lunch in the very middle of the Croisette right in the midst of all the atmosphere of this International Festival. The lunch was delicious, as were the industry speakers and the famous film quiz. And it was a wonderful sunny summer day in a delightful setting.
A wonderful event enjoyed by the sell-out group of members and friends on our guided visit to Renoir’s last house & its gardens in Cagnes-sur-Mer, conducted by the author of “The French Riviera and Its Artists”, followed by a book-signing and lunch nearby at the port of Cros de Cagnes.Everyone particularly enjoyed John Baxter’s amusing personality, his knowledge at the guided tour and his later Q&A.
Our members and guests thoroughly enjoyed their day in Vallauris. The brilliant ceramist Donique Allain gave a marvellous explanation of how each person could paint their own design and during our gourmet lunch at Cafe Llorca, he fired them at 800 degrees! The results were wonderful – what an artistic lot we are! After lunch we walked in the footsteps of Picasso and visited the Madoura foundry.
The Monaco-based charity, Association Ars Antonina, which supports and nurtures exceptional young musical talent, held a concert featuring the cellist Laura van Heidjen, winner of BBC Young Musician of the Year 2013. There was a discount of 20% to members of the American Club of the Riviera.
The American Rodeo was held in Puget sur Argens for 2015. There were cowboys riding bulls and wild horses; American cars and motorbikes; country dancing; and many stalls with American articles.
The American painter Alexander Mihaylovich (New York 1958) invited members of the American Club to his Vernissage at the Royal Mougins Resort at Mougins on the 11th of April.
The Monaco-based charity, Association Ars Antonina, which supports and nurtures exceptional young musical talent, will pay tribute to its founder, Jacqueline Ollier (1932-2014), in a memorial concert at the Théâtre des Variétés, Monaco on Tuesday, 3rd March at 8pm. The programme will feature extracts from her favourite works by Bach, Chopin, Dvorak, Gershwin, Mozart, Rachmaninov and Schubert performed by eminent international artists as well as some new emerging talent. (REDUCTION: 20% discount to members of the American Club of the Riviera on production of their membership card at the box office)
…. art historian, followed by a gourmet lunch a few minutes away in the artistic center of the Old Village
Le Cannet greatly inspired the art of Pierre Bonnard, and our March event took us to his eponymous museum there. Our visit was greatly enriched by the insights of art historian Christophe Boïcos, who was with us from Paris thanks to the generosity of ACR members Clydette & Charles De Groot. We lunched at the remarkable Bistrot Saint Sauveur on the street of that name in the very nearby Old Village of Le Cannet, where Chef-Owner Claude Sutter provided a creative menu and wines.
We had a fun and enjoyable Sabling and tasting of the fine “champagne” with the Danish Club at the Chateau les Crostes. In case you don’t know what is “sabling”? It is taking off the champagne cork with a well-aimed (very sharp) saber!
In the morning, we visited the Carnolès Palace, built in 1717 at the request of the Prince of Monaco, Antoine 1st Grimaldi, who wanted to create his own little Versailles. The guide then showed us around the magnificent garden with the most important collection of citrus trees (137 specimens), which had received the French distinction of “Jardin Remarquable”. Following this we had a reception and lovely lunch at the Petit Prince restaurant just across the road. An afternoon concert back at the Carnoles Palace completed a lovely day.
Our first event of 2015 – reception, lunch, and Assemblée Générale at the glorious Negresco Hotel on the Promenade des Anglais in Nice, preceded by a private guided visit of the nearby Musée Masséna. ACR member Mme Madeleine Deschamps, art historian and designer, kindly offered to give an introductory talk about the Empire collections of this delightful museum. Thoroughly enjoyed by all present.
The venue this year was the splendid Salon Belle Epoque at the Hôtel Hermitage. This is truly Thanksgiving done to the highest standards, with a traditional American feast of turkey and all the trimmings, preceded by a Champagne reception. The company was our friends and families, as well as honored guests from the US Air Force. 165 attendees loved the event and many sent us thanks for the arrangements.
The 12th annual conference of the Association of American Clubs (“AAC”) was held in Paris from Thursday evening November 13 to Sunday brunch November 16, 2014, and many members of the 50 American Clubs of the world participated. It was a well-enjoyed conference with many interesting events in Paris.
We were at the SET Theatre (South of France English Theatre) last night in Valbonne and enjoyed the psychological thriller ‘Dial M for Murder’ by Frederic Knott. This is an iconic play, and the film was made world-famous by Grace Kelly, directed by Alfred Hitchcock.
We were invited to join the Commonwealth Club of the Riviera for a morning of pétanque (boules) on Tuesday, 28 October 2014 at 10.30am at Mandelieu bowling (pétanque) site. This was a no-cost event and everyone had a great time.
Lunch at the Belles Rives Hotel, Juan les Pins, Cap d’Antibes
“Noon dominated sea and sky—even the white lines of Cannes, five miles off, had faded to a mirage of what was fresh and cool…. It seemed that there was no life anywhere in all this expanse of coast except under the filtered sunlight of those umbrellas….” —Tender Is the Night, by F. Scott Fitzgerald
The American Club of the Riviera was happy to announce another event in October, in co-operation with the Danish Club of the Riviera – where our members have the privilege of the Danish Club Member prices. The Jazz Kings’ home base is Club Royal in Copenhagen and we are privileged to attend
Film Director / Producer (and ACR Member) Barbara Freed began our day of Art & Gastronomy in Vence, by presenting her award-winning documentary film A Model for Matisse: The Story of the Creation of the Vence Chapel within the chapel itself. Henri Matisse considered this Chapel to be the masterpiece of his life’s work. Following this inspirational morning, we lunched at Les Bacchanales, the Michelin starred restaurant of Christophe Dufau.